Blackboard
English Grammar & Vocabulary

Prepare yourself for GRE | iELTS | TOEFL 

BCS | Bank | Other Job Preparation English

 English grammar and Vocabulary are fundamental for English Job exams such as BCS and BANK and Other Government Job. Building English Vocabulary for the BCS, Bank, Primary School, other Government Job test? 

english-grammar

BCS | Bank | Job Preparation English | Lesson-01

Verbal Session-01

 

Vocabulary Questions

 

Questions for Discussion

Solving Antonym; Tips and Tricks

Tactic 1: Think the context for the capitalized word

Take a quick look at the word in capital letters. If you don’t remember its meaning right away, try to think a phrase or sentences in which you have heard it used. The context may help you come with the word’s meaning.

 

MAGNIFY:

  1. forgive   B. comprehend   C. extract     D. diminish   E. electrify

 

Now think about magnifying glass. What comes to your mind? A magnifying glass enlarges things. The opposite word of enlarging something is to make it smaller or diminish it. The answer is Choice D.

 

ABERRANT:

  1. exact    B. simple   C. causative  D. ordinary          E. pleasant

 

What phrase comes to your mind? `Aberrant behavior’ or `Aberrant data’? in both cases, you have an impression of something deviating from what it is expected. Aberrant behavior is odd or extraordinary behavior. Aberrant therefore is an antonym of ordinary. The correct answer is Choice D.

 

Tactic 2: Before you look at the choices, think of antonyms for the capitalized word

Suppose your word is industrious or hard working. What opposites come to your mind? You might come up with laze, idle, slothful, and inactive- all words that mean lacking industry and energy.

 

INDUSTRIOUS:

  1. stupid    B. harsh    C. indolent      D. complex      E. inexpensive

 

Lazy, idle and slothful all are synonyms for indolent. Your correct answer is Choice C.

 

Tactic 3: Read all choices before you decide which is the best

In exam hall, you remain under pressure. You may be tempted to mark down the first answer that feels right and ignore the other choices given. Don’t do it. Consider each answer. Only in this way can you be sure to distinguish between two possible answers and come up with the best answer for the question.

Words have shades of meaning. In matching a word with its opposite, you must pay attention to these shades of meaning. Try this example to see how this tactic works.

 

UNRULY:

A  immobile                        B. engaging                         C. merciful                          D. tractable                         E.indifferent

 

Suppose you have only a vague sense of the meaning of unruly. You associate it with such vaguely negative terms as wild, disagreeable, bad.  For this reason, you stop short when you come to Choice C. Reasoning that someone wild and disagreeable or merciful; you look no further and mark down Choice C.

 

Choice C, however, is incorrect. True, an unruly person is wild and hard to manage, even rebellious. Someone who lacks rebelliousness, however, is not necessarily merciful. Such a person is easy to manage, compliant, if fact tractable. The correct answer is Choice D.

 

Tactic 4: Look at the answer choices to determine the word’s part of speech

Look the capitalized word. What part of speech is it? Words often exist in several forms. You may think of run as a verb, for example, but in the phases, “A RUN IN HER STOCKING” and “HIT A HOME RUN” is a noun.

The questions play on this confusion in testing your verbal ability. When you look at a particular capitalized word, you may not know whether you are dealing with a noun, a verb, or an adjective. Harbor, for example, is a very common noun; in “to harbor a fugitive,” to give refuge to a runway, it is a much less common verb.

If you suspect that a capitalized word may have more than one part of speech, don’t worry. Just look at the first couple of answer choices and see what part of speech they are. That part of speech will be the capitalized word’s part of speech.

In common antonym questions, all the answer choices have the same part of speech. You can always tell what that part of speech is by quick glance at the first answer choice or two.

See how this tactic works in answering a relatively simple question.

 

POLISH:

  1. ruthlessness                 B. honesty                          C. indolence                       D. gaucheness                   E. complexity

 

Are you dealing with polish the verb or polish the noun?

A quick look at the answers assures you that they are all nouns. Polish here has nothing to do with rubbing and shining your silverware. The noun polish means refinement and culture: The country squire went abroad to acquire polish. Its opposite is gaucheness or awkwardness. The correct answer is ChoiceD.

 

Tactic 5: Consider secondary meaning of capitalized word as well as its primary meaning

None of the answer choices seems right to you, take another look at the capitalized word. It may have more than on meaning. The common antonym questions often construct questions that make use of secondary, less well-known meaning of deceptive familiar words. Take, for example, this typical question.

 

LIST:

  1. overturn         B. be upright                      C. lie flat                               D. fall forward                   E. veer from side to side

 

List here has nothing to do with making lists of enumerating. It has to do with moving. When it lists to starboard, a ship simply leans to one side or tilts. The best antonym for this meaning of list is Choice B, be upright.

 

Tactic 6: Break down unfamiliar words into recognizable parts

When you come upon a totally unfamiliar word, don’t give up. Break it down and see if you recognize any of its parts. Pay particular attention to prefixes- word parts added to the beginning of a word- and to roots, the building blocks of the languages.

Look once more at the following question.

 

ABERRANT:

  1. exact          B. simple                              C. causative                        D. ordinary                          E. pleasant

 

Suppose you had never seen aberrant before. You have seen dozens of other words beginning with ab-: absent, abnormal, abduct. Take abduct. What do you do when you abduct someone? You kidnap him, or steal him away. Ab> means away.

What about the root, err>? To err is to be wrong or to wandering from the usual path. Thus, aberrant means wandering away, staying from what is usual or normal, and its opposite is of course Choice D, ordinary.

 

Tactic 7: Change unfamiliar words from one part of speech to another

Sometimes you may be stumped by word in one form, yet recognize it easily in another. Take, for example, the word synchronous in the previous tactic. To most test-takers, the adjective synchronous is a less familiar than is the verb synchronize, as it ‘Synchronize your watches!’

When you face an unfamiliar word, try replacing its suffix with a different word ending and seed whether this change jogs your memory. In the case of the noun assiduity, for example, cut off the noun suffix –ity and replace it with the adjective suffix –ous. You now have the word assiduous, as in an assiduous worker. Does that ring a bell?  Assiduous means hardworking; assiduity, therefore, is a synonym for industriousness or diligence.

 

Tactic 8: in eliminating answer  choices, test words for their positive or negative connotations

When you are dealing with a partially unfamiliar word, a word that you cannot define or use in a sentence but that you know you have seen previously, try to remember in what sort of context you have seen that word. Did it have positive connotations, or did it have a negative feel? If you are certain the capitalized word has positive connotations, then, since you are looking for its antonym, you know the correct answer must have negative ones. Thus, you can eliminate any answer choices that have positive connotations and guess among the answer choices that are negative in tone.

 

See how this approach applies in the following example.

 

CHARY:

  1. bold                  B. bright                               C. unsteady                        D. unforgiving                    E. unhappy

 

You cannot define chary. You would hesitate to use it in a sentence of your own. And yet, you are sure the word has a slightly negative feel to it. A person is chary about something. You have a sense of someone holding back.

Look at the answer choices. Which of them have negative connotations? Unsteady? Unforgiving? Unhappy? Eliminate all three. You have narrowed down your choices to bold and bright, both words that have a positive feel. You are in an excellent position to guess. As it turns out, charybold. means hesitant or reluctant to proceed. Its opposite is Choice A,

 

Tactic 9: watch out for errors caused by eye-catchers

When you look at answers choices, do you find that certain ones seem to leap right off the page? These words are eye-catchers. They look good—but be sure to take a second look.

Try this next antonym to see just how an eye-catcher works.

 

UNDERMINE:

  1. ensnare                          B. overstrain                      C. mollify                             D. terminate                      E. bolster

 

What’s the opposite of under? Over. What’s the opposite of undermine? No, it’s not overstrain. Be suspicious of answers that come too easily. To undermine means to weaken something or cause it to collapse by removing its underlying supports. The opposite of to undermine is Choice E to bolster or support.

 

Step 1 : Synonym Questions

 

Direction : Choose the word which is most nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letter.

 

  1. INFLATED
  2. exorbitant b) reasonable   c) sensible        d) low             e) None of them

 

  1. MANDATORY :
  2. massive b) happy          c) messy          d) compulsory     e) reckless

 

Direction : In each of the following questions, pick up the choice which is most similar in meaning to the word underlined in the sentence.

 

  1. The supply of food and beverage for the program was abundant [Trust Bank- Jan, 2011]
  2. inadequate b) substandard      c) excellent            d) plentiful                  e) None of these
  3. Young people who belong to minority groups need positive role models to try to emulate

                                                                                                                              [NCC Bank, 2011

  1. Interview b) Exploit        c) Sketch         d) Copy          
  2. Howard Hughes was one of the century’s most eccentric personages   [NCC Bank, 2011]
  3. Wealthiest b) Strangest                 c) Most interesting              d) Unhappiest

 

Step 2 : Antonym Questions

 

Direction : Choose the word which is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word in capital letters.

 

  1. DEBACLE                                                                                     [Janata Bank Ltd-2011]
  2. decide             b) success                    c) discord                    d) debate
  3. TRICKY                                                 [Jamuna Oil Company-2010]
  4. Easy             b) Professional            c) Awkward                d) Difficult             e) None of these

 

Direction : In each of the following questions, pick up the choice which is most opposite in meaning to the word underlined in the sentence.

 

  1. He was exonerated of the charge of theft when the woman gave an evidence in his favor

                                                                                                      [Bangladesh Krishi Bank-2011]

  1. imprisoned b) complained             c) expelled                   d) accused
  2. The director had a derisive attitude towards some of the members of the committee

                                                                                                                  [Al Arafah Bank-2010]

  1. Enthusiastic             b) Respectful               c) Deprecatory            d) Encouraging
  2. He has been acquitted of the charge of theft             [Social Islami Bank-2010]
  3. punished             b) convicted                c) released                   d) exonerated

 

BELITTLE :

  1. lessen b) intensify       c) compliment            d) begrudge         e) admire                 Ans : C

PRIM :

  1. enormous b) unsuitable        c) arid          d) healthy        e)  slight                                  Ans : B

DEBILITATE :

  1. discharge       b) strengthen               c) undermine               d) squelch        e) delete          Ans : B

MALADROIT :

  1. ill-willed         b) dexterous                c) cowardly                 d) enduring     e) sluggish       Ans : B

CARNAL :

  1. sensual            b) aural                        c) oral              d) unusual                   e) spiritual       Ans : E

ALLEVIATE :

  1. alienate b) worsen                    c) revitalize                  d) aerate          e) elevate         Ans : B

AMENABLE :

  1. intrinsic          b) progressive c) enthusiastic             d) tenuous       e) obstinate      Ans : E

CATHOLIC :

  1. uncharitable b) reticent        c) specialized               d) irreverent                e) reckless        Ans : C

 

ANTONYMS  REVIEW

 

When you know the stem word

  • Define the word for yourself
  • come up with a simple opposite for the word
  • Use POE to eliminate answer choices.
  • When you “sort of” know the stem word :

 

Use Positive / Negative

  • Determine if the stem word is positive or negative
  • Eliminate those answer choices that do not have an opposite connotation.

 

Work Backward

  • Make opposites for the answer choices
  • Eliminate answer choices whose opposite aren’t close to the stem word.

 

When you don’t know the stem word at all :

  • Eliminate any answer choices that don’t have opposites.
  • Guess the extremes

Step 3 : Analogy Questions

 

  1. HAMMER : CARPENETR                         [Mutual Trust Bank-2011]
  2. brick : mason             b) road : driver                        c) kitchen : cook
  3. d) Knife : butcher e) None of these
  4. BOUYANT : SINK                                                 [IFIC Bank-2011]
  5. a) frozen : melt b) liquid : evaporate                        c) solid : breakdown    
  6. d) gaseous : expand e) insoluble : dissolve
  7. EMPATHY : FEELING                                                 [Grameen Bank-2011]
  8. a) depressed : Joy b) sibling : relative c) institution : encouragement
  9. d) boldness : fault e) None of these
  10. GEOLOGY : SCIENCE
  11. a) fir : tree b) theory : practice            c) fashion : style                d) biology ; laboratory
  12. SCRIPT : PLAY
  13. a) player : fan b) assignment : course             c) score : symphony
  14. d) collection : story e) debate : candidate

FRICTION : ABRASION

  1. Sterility : cleanliness b) dam : flood                         c) laceration : wound
  2. heat : evaporation e) literacy : ignorance              Ans : D

LISTLESS : EXCITE

  1. stuffy : brag b) skeptical : convince             c) industrious : produce
  2. d) scholarly : instruct e) impenetrable : ignore Ans : B

 

Common Analogy Relationships

Type of

ELATION : EMOTION               : Elation is a type of Emotion.

Used to

ULTIMATUM : COERCE          : An Ultimatum is used to Coerce.

Degree

ABHORRENCE : DISLIKE       : Abhorrence is a greater degree of Dislike.

Characterized by  

 BIGOT : INTOLERANCE         :A bigot is characterized by Intolerance.

Without/ Lacking

HUBRIS : HUMILITY                : Someone with Hubris lacks Humility

 

DOLPHIN : MAMMAL

  1. larva : insect b) penguin : bird                      c) sonnet : stanza
  2. d) computer : machine e) peninsula : island Ans : B

 

FLAG : VIGOR

  1. shield : protection b) arrange : marriage   c) announce : position
  2. d) diminish : size e) record : sound Ans : D

 

DRAWL : SPEAK

  1. spurt : expel b) foster : develop                   c) scintillate : flash
  2. d) pare : trim e) saunter : walk Ans  : E

 

XXXXX : XXXXX (NOISOME : ODOR)

  1. precipitous : mountain b) judicious : system c) dispersive : discharge
  2. d) strident : sound e) epidemic : disease Ans : D

 

 

LAMENTATION : REMORSE

  1. reassurance : interactions b) elegy : sorrow                     c) instigation : responses
  2. d) acknowledgment : ideas e) ornateness : filigree Ans : B

SUPPLICANT : BESEECHING

  1. minister : tortured b) coquette : flirtatious            c) benefactor : cordial
  2. d) lawyer : articulate e) thief : violent Ans : B

 

Analogies  Review

When you know both words in the stem pair :

  • Make  a defining sentence
  • Apply that sentence to the answer choices
  • Use POE
  • If necessary, make a more specific sentence.

When you don’t know one of the words in the stem pair :

  • Try to make defining sentences with the answer choices
  • Eliminate those with nondefining relationships.
  • With the remaining answer choices, work Backward and eliminate answer choices whose defining sentences don’t work with the stem pair.

 

When you don’t know either of the words in the stem pair :

  • Try to make defining sentences with the answer choices.
  • Eliminate nondefining relationships 
  • Make an educated guess about which remaining answer choice has the strongest relationship. 

 

Step 4 : Sentence Completion Questions

 

  1. Company employees were quite pleased with their efficient new work area because it provided an ideal climate _______ increased productivity.
  2. a) unfavorable to b) conducive to             c) shadowed by
  3. d) supported by e) None of these
  4. Not only the ___ are fooled by propaganda : we can all be misled if we are not ____
  5. ignorant–cynical b) gullible-wary                       c) illiterate-mature
  6. d) credulous-headstrong e) fatuous-intelligent
  7. Susan’s self-confidence was ___ as she had scored poorly in the exam
  8. boosted b) destroyed                            c) demoralize
  9. d) elevated e) None of these
  10. The world is facing a ___ environment crisis that needs to be ___
  11. severe, resolved b) global, abolished                 c) severe, upgraded
  12. d) bad, ratified e) None of these
  13. _____ the businessman have welcomed the move, there has been strong ___ from many a quarter.
  14. While, opposition b) When, rivalry                      c) Though, approval
  15. d) In spite of, non-cooperation e) None of these

 

Step 5 : Other Vocabulary Questions

 

One Word Substitution

 

Direction : In each of the following question. out of the four alternatives choose the one which can be substituted for the given words/sentence.

  1. A person who believes that pleasure is the chief pursuit
  2. Stoic b) Hedonist                 c) Epicure                    d) Sensual
  3. One who always runs away from danger
  4. Escapist b) Timid                      c) Coward                   d) Shirker
  5. A place of ideal peace and happiness
  6. Elysium          b) Utopia                     c) EI Dorado               d) Asylum
  7. A political leader who tries to stir up people
  8. Statesman b) Dictator                   c) Demagogue             d) Martinet
  9. Anything written in a letter after it is signed
  10. Posterity b) Post diction             c) Postscript                d) Corrigendum

 

 

Answer key of Lesson # 01

 

1

A

2

D

3

D

4

D

 

 

5

B

6

B

7

A

8

D

9

B

10

B

11

C

12

E

13

B

14

A

15

C

16

B

17

B

18

B

19

A

20

A

21

B

22

A

23

B

24

C

25

C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions for Self Study

 

Step 1 : Synonym and Antonym Questions

 

Direction : In each of the following questions, pick up the choice which is most similar in meaning to the word underlined in the sentence

 

[NCC Bank, 2011]

  1. The law is very explicit regarding the use of and standards for child safety seats in automobiles.
  2. Brief             b) New                        C) Firm                        d) Clear

 

[BASIC Bank-2009]

  1. Though he embroidered (†Kvb M‡í PgrKvi eY©bv †hvM Kiv) his tales considerably (D‡j­L‡hvM¨ cwigv‡Y), there was always a grain of truth in Mark Twin’s stories.
  2. Lengthened             b) embellished (‡qg‡ewjk-AjsK…Z Kiv)
  3. c) repeated d) Emphasized (‡qgd¨vmvBm-‡Rvo †`qv)

 

[Trust Bank-Jan-2011]

  1. According to the rules and regulation of the organization there is no hindrance to his succeeding to the chairmanship.
  2. Opportunity             b) obstruction (evav)                 c) was building
  3. d) was build e) None of these

 

[BASIC Bank-2009]

  1. The doctor proffered to resign rather than be accused publicly of infamous (Bb‡dgvm- j¾vKi)
  2. unknown             b) extraordinary          c) mysterious                d) disgraceful 

 

[BASIC Bank-2009]

  1. Since an is house search failed to reveal (wifxj-D`NvUb Kiv) the culprit, an outside investigations was instigated (Bbw÷‡MBU- †Kvb wKQz Officially start Kiv).
  2. requested             b) initiated (BwbwkGBU- ïi“ Kiv)
  3. c) carried out d) discussed   

 

Direction : Choose the word which is most nearly (opposite) in meaning to the word in capital letters.

  1. AMPLIFY
  2. Speaker             b) Reach                      c) Reduce                    d) Climb
  3. AMATURE
  4. Easy                         b) Skilled                     c) Athlete                    d) Tricky

 

  1. CHEERFUL
  2. Pure                         b) Faithful                   c) Sad d) Tainted                    d) None of these
  3. CLARIFY
  4. Refuse             b) Confuse                  c) Shelter                     d) Garbage
  5. CLEANSE
  6. Belief b) Clean                       c) Soil             e) Uncommon

 

 

Step 2 : Analogy Questions

 

Direction : Each of the following questions contains a pair of words in capital letters, nest to which are five pairs of word or phrases. Choose there pair that best expresses the relationship similar to the one expressed by the pair of words in capital letters.

 

  1. SHRINE : PILGRIM
  2. defeat: loser             b) peak : climber                      c) rescue : danger
  3. d) election : contestant
  4. CYGNET : SWAN
  5. ring: jewel             b) gender : goose                     c) stamp : seal
  6. d) kid : goat e) None of these
  7. ELECRICITY : WIRE
  8. car : highway             b) fluid : pipe                          c) river : bank
  9. d) light : blub e) None of these
  10. OATH : PROMISE
  11. deed : attorney             b) contract : agreement           c) title : estate
  12. d) job : loyalty e) None of these
  13. DENTURE : TEETH
  14. scarf : head             b) toupee : hair                        c) fingernail : hand
  15. d) eyebrow : eye             e) bandage : wound
  16. SHRUG : INDIFFERENCE
  17. grin : deference             b) wave : fatigue                     c) nod : assent
  18. d) blink : scorn e) scowl : desire         
  19. ANGER : CHOLERIC
  20. Wrath : ironic b) love : bucolic                       c) island : volcanic
  21. d) greed : avaricious e) pride : malicious
  22. HEART : PUMP
  23. a) lungs : collapse b) appendix : burst                  c) stomach : digest
  24. d) intestine : twist             e) teeth : ache
  25. MASTER : SERVANT :
  26. a) judge : jury             b) monarch : subject                c) serf : peasant
  27. d) capital : labor             e) landlord : tenant
  28. STANZA : POEM
  29. a) flag : anthem             b) story : building                    c) mural : painting
  30. d) program : recital             e) rhyme : prose

 

Step 3 : One Word Substitution Questions

 

Direction : In each of the following questions. Out of the four alternatives choose the one which can be substituted for the given words/sentence.

 

[National Credit Ltd-2011]

  1. To slap with a flat object
  2. a) Hew (KZ©bKiv) b) Swat (Pvco gviv
  3. c) Chop (UzKiv UzKiv K‡i KvUv) d) Gnaw (‡bv- GK bvMv‡o Kvgov‡bv)

 

[National Credit Ltd-2011]

  1. Life History of a person written by another
  2. a) Autobiography b) Biography                c) Bibliography           d) Memoir

 

 

[National Credit Ltd-2011]

  1. Bringing about gentle and painless death from incurable disease
  2. a) Suicide             b) Euphoria (igidv)
  3. c) Gallows (duvwmKvVv) d) Euthanasia (hš¿Yvnxb g„Zz¨)

 

[Bangladesh Krishi Bank-2011]

  1. One who pretends illness to escape duty
  2. a) Truant (¯‹zj cvjv‡bv †Q‡j) b) Malingerer (KZ©e¨ Gov‡bvi Rb¨ †h Amy¯’Zvi fvb K‡i)
  3. c) Hypocrite             d) Concubine (DccZœx, iw¶Zv)

 

[Bangladesh Krishi Bank-2011]

  1. 50. The power of reading the thoughts of others
  2. a) Psychopathy             b) Telecommunication
  3. c) Psychology (g‡bvwPš—v)           d) Telepathy (A‡b¨i wPš—v ev Abyf~wZ `ª“Z ey‡S †bIqvi ¶gZv)

 

 GB kxU G GKwU Word-G Definition, Sentence-Gi cÖ‡qvM †`Lv‡bv Av‡Q| hv‡Z g‡b ivLv A‡bK mnR

 

  1. A person who does not believe in any religion (†Kvb a‡g© wek¦vm K‡i bv Ggb e¨w³)
  2. a) Philatelist             b) Rationalist               c) Atheist                    d) Pagan
  3. A man of lax moral ( ‰bwZK `ye©jZv m¤úbœ e¨w³)
  4. a) Ruffain b) Licentious               c) Pirate                       d) Vagabond
  5. A small enclosure for cattle, sheep, poultry etc (Mev`x cï ev nvm gyiMx i¶‡Yi Rb¨ †eov w`‡q †Niv †QvU RvqMv)
  6. a) Cellar                         b) Sty                          c) Pen                          d) Lair
  7. To Cause troops etc to spread out in readiness for battle (hy‡×i cÖ¯‘wZi Rb¨ wewfbœ ¯’v‡b ‰mb¨‡`i ‡gvZv‡qb Kiv ev Qwo‡q †`qv)
  8. a) Align                            b) Collocate                 c) Deploy                    d) Disperse

 

 

Answer

 

26

D

27

B

28

B

29

D

 

 

30

B

31

C

32

B

33

C

34

B

35

C

36

B

37

D

38

B

39

B

40

B

41

C

42

D

43

C

44

B

45

B

46

B

47

B

48

D

49

B

50

D

51

D

52

B

53

C

54

C

 

 



IELTS?

The most widely used language test. To study or immigration or work or even freelancing English language is essential. Without good knowledge of English, our trial is hindered in the middle of the path.

Vocabulary

Learn new words and improve your vocabulary so that you will be able to communicate well in English

English has a large vocabulary with an estimated 250,000 distinct words and three times that many distinct meanings of words. However, most English teachers will tell you that mastering the 3000 most common words in English will give you 90 to 95% comprehension of English newspapers, books, movies, and conversations.

english-vocabulary