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Tense is the most important part of English Grammar. It builds the foundation of English grammar. To understand the English grammar its mandatory to learn the tense in dept.
“DETAILS ABOUT TENSE”
Present Simple / Present Indefinite
(mvavib eZ©gvb ev wbZ¨e„Ë eZ©gvb)
‡h tense Øviv eZ©gvb Kv‡ji †Kvb KvR/ NUbv, Af¨vm/ cÖK…wZ, চিরন্তনসত্য ev ¯^vfvweK Kvh©, Af¨¯’Zv, wbZ¨ ˆbgwË¨K NUbv BZ¨vw` eySvq Zv‡K Present Simple tense e‡j|
evsjviƒct Kwi, Kwim, Ki, K‡ib BZ¨vw` wµqvwefw³ _v‡K|
MVbtSubject + Verb Gi bese form (g~jwµqv)
The sun rises in the east. (চিরন্তনসত্য/ ¯^vfvweK Kvh©)
I get up early in the morning. (Af¨vm/Af¨¯’Zv)
(Affirmative sentence-G present simple tense-G verb- Gi MVb infinitive Gi gZ A_©vr Verb Gi base form nq, Z‡e Subject 3rdpersonsingular number n‡j verb -Gi mv‡_ s/es †hvM n‡e Ges mKj regular I irregular verb- Gi †¶‡Î GKB MVb n‡q _v‡K|)
I work. (Affirmative)
I do not work. (Negative)
Do I work? (Interrogative)
Do I not work? (Negative- Interrogative)
He buys books.
He doesn’t buy books.
Does he buy books?
Doesn’t he buy books?
Does he not buy books?
You are ill. Are you ill?
You are not ill.
Are you not ill? Or Aren’t you ill?
I have a pen.
I have no (not a) pen.
Have you a pen?
Do you have a pen?
Did not Rahim do the work?
Did he not do the work?
He has no enemy.
No man can do this.
Present simple tense -G Subject Gi c~‡e© Do/Does ewm‡q Interrogative sentence Ges Don’t/ Doesn’t ewm‡q Negative-Interrogative Ges Subject Gi ci Don’t/Doesn’t ewm‡q Negative sentence Kiv hvq| Z‡e To be verb _vK‡j to be verb †K Subject Gi c~‡e© ewm‡q Interrogativesentence Ges to be -Gi mv‡_ not ewm‡q Negativesentence Kiv hvq| to have verb _vK‡j Dfq wbq‡gB Kiv hvq|
Not-mvaviYZ, Do Z_v Auxiliary Ges g~j Verb Gi gvSLv‡b e‡m| Ges Negative- Interrogative -G Noun -Gi c~‡e© Ges pronoun -Gi c‡i e‡m| Z‡e contraction Gi †¶‡Î Noun I pronoun Df‡qiB c~‡e© e‡m|
Noun – Gi c~‡e© No Ges Adjective -Gi c~‡e© not ewm‡q Negativesentence Kiv hvq|
1.1– Af¨vm ev Af¨¯’Zv (Habitual action) eySv‡Z present simple tense e¨eüZ nq|
He smokes. Dogs bark. (e³vi e³‡e¨i mgq KvRwU Pj‡Q wKbv Zv ¯úó bq|)
D‡jL¨ e³vi e³‡e¨i mgq KvRwU Pj‡Q wKbv Zv Present simple tense Øviv eySv hvq bv, GB welqwU cwi¯‹vifv‡e eyS‡Z n‡j present continuous tense e¨envi Ki‡Z nq|
He always works at night. (e³vi e³‡e¨i mgq KvRwU Pj‡Q wKbv Zv ®úófv‡e eySv hvq bv|)
He is working (now). (e³vi e³‡e¨i mgq KvRwU Pj‡Q eySv‡”Q |)
My dog barks a lot, but it isn’t barking at the moment.
Present simple Øviv Kv‡Ri Pjgvb Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© ¯úó avibv cvIqv hvqbv|
Present continuous Øviv Kv‡Ri Pjgvb Ae¯’v m¤ú‡K© ¯úó avibv cvIqv hvq|
1.2- Sentence – G KZ¸‡jv Adverb/ adverbial phrases _vK‡j Ges wbw`©ó mg‡qi D‡jL bv _vK‡j †hgb- Always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, every week, on Monday, twice a year BZ¨vw` (D³ word ¸‡jv hLb Af¨vm eySv‡e) _vK‡j present simple tense e¨eüZ nq|
A good boy attendsschool regularly.
He goes to mosque on Friday. (অভ্যস্থতা)
It rains in summer. (cÖK…wZ)
How often do you wash your hair? (Af¨vm)
It often rains heavily in Bangladesh. (cÖK…wZ)
1.3-mgqÁvcK (Adverbial clause – time clause) Gi †¶‡Î hv mvaviYZ wbqwgZ Kv‡Ri avibv †`q ev Af¨vm eySvq| G‡¶‡Î when ev whenever _vK‡j present simple tense ‡ewk cÖ‡hvR¨ nq |
Whenever it rains, the roof leaks.
When you open the window, a light goes on.
As soon as he earns money, he spends it.
He takes the boy to school before he goes to work.
`ywU fwel¨Z NUbvi GKwU AciwUi ú~‡e© msNwUZ n‡j †h NUbvi eY©bv- When, whenever, as soon as, before, till, until, while, since, where, unless, if, incase, whether BZ¨vw` Øviv ïi“ Ki‡Z nq Zvi eY©bvq, Ab¨fv‡e ejv hvq D³ Word Øviv MwVZ subordinate clause – G present simple tense n‡e Ges Principal clause n‡e future tense G|
I shall go there if he comes.
He will learn his lessons before he goes to school.
Av‡iv wKQz e¨envi t-
2.1-‡Kvb wKQz wRÁvmv Kivi †¶‡Î, eB †_‡K D×„wZ w`‡Z, †bvwU‡mi †¶‡Î, wKsev †Kvb wPwV m¤cÖwZ cvIqvi ci Zvi m¤ú‡K© wKQy ej‡Z ÒSay-verb-Gi mv‡_ Presentsimple tense n‡q _v‡K|
(1) Bushra : What does the notice say?
Eva : It says, ‘No parking.’
(2) Bushra : What does the book say?
Eva : It says ‘Learn English (Easy way) Easily.’
(3)Bushra:I see you’ve got a letter from Anika. What does she say?
Eva: She says she is coming to Sylhet next week.
(4) Shakespeare says, ‘Life is a tale told by an idiot.’
2.2- Verb of communication Gi †¶‡Î Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
Shakespeare advises us not to lend or borrow.
The notice warns people not to go any further.
2.3-msev`c‡Îi wk‡ivbv†g Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
SSC RESULT PUBLISHES
2.4-Kv‡e¨i fwbZvq (dramatic narrative)- (Bnv mvaviYZ e¨eüZ nq bvU‡K, avivfv‡l¨, mgv‡e‡k) Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
When she gets up, the sun is shinning. A cold wind hits her. She feels…..
2.5-wbKU fwel¨Z (cwiKwíZ/ Aek¨¤¢vex) Ges wbKU fwel¨‡Zi avivevwnK Kv‡Ri eY©bvq( Bnv mvaviYZ e¨eüZ nq åg‡bi †¶‡Î): Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
Ramadan begins in the next month.
We leave Sylhet at 2.00 next Tuesday and arrive in Habiganj at 4.00. We spend two hours there and leave again at 6.00………….
2.6- Present continuous tense wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq bv Giƒc Verb ¸‡jvi ‡¶‡Î Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K| (see, feel, believe, like, know, think, understand, notice, want, desire, recognize, smell, love, hate, dislike, forgive, etc.)
The Doctor feels his pulse.
2.7- Conditional sentence (Type-1: probable)- G Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K| (If + Present +…….)
If I see Antu I’ll ask him.
Unless you read attentively you won’t pass.
2.8-AwbðqZv cÖKv‡k: Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
Whether good days come is uncertain.
3.1-AZxZ Kv‡ji KvR‡K eZ©gv‡bi KvRiƒ‡c eySv‡Z: Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
Hazarat (SM) borns in 570 A.D.
3.2AZxZKv‡ji †Kvb HwZnvwmK NUbv ‡hb eZ©gv‡b n‡”Q eySv‡Z (HwZnvwmK eZ©gvb): Presentsimple tense G n‡q _v‡K|
Humayan ascends the throne.
Narration is the crucial part of English Grammar
Sentence transformation is essential to the grammar knowledge.
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